What is Nanotechnology?
Nanophysics is used in the Greek language to mean dwarf or very small. Using these physics, words like nanotechnology, nanoscience, and nanoengineering have been formed.
Once let’s understand the difference between nanoscience, nanotechnology, nanoengineering.
- Nanoscience is the study of structures and molecules on a scale from 1 to 100 nanometers.
- The focus is on the effective use of these properties in nanoengineering.
- Talking about nanotechnology, in the year 1959, American physicist Recharge Finman introduced its concept.
During a meeting, he gave a lecture titled (there is plenty of room at the bottom). During the lecture, he gave a hypothesis that why we cannot write all 24 volumes of Encyclopedia Britannica on the tip of a pin. With this, he laid down his vision of building a small machine and minimizing them to a fundamental level. For this reason, Richard Feynman is considered the father of modern nanotechnology.
About 15 years later, when the Japanese scientist Naudio Tani Guchi first used the term nanotechnology and defined it, according to Tani Kuchi, nanotechnology is the separation or coming together of a molecule or a substance made up of an atom and into these. The process of scattering is involved.
Professor CNR Rao is considered the father of technology in India. Simply put, nanotechnology is a technique in which changes are made to the atomic and atomic layers of matter. This makes a difference in their basic properties. The dimensions of molecules and atoms are in nanometers. That is why it is called nanotechnology and the products made from it are called nanomaterials.
In this, work is done on the nanoscale from 1 to 100 nanometers. One nanometer is equal to a power of ten – 9 meters. That is, one nanometer is equal to 1 billionth of a meter. Products made through this technology are smaller and lighter in size.
Based on the medium, nanotechnology can be divided into two parts.
- Dry nanotechnology in the manufacture of nanostructures in coal, silicon, inorganic materials, metals, semiconductors, etc.
- Wet technology that deals with genetic material membrane enzymes and cellular components
Two approaches are adopted for the manufacture of products in nanotechnology
- top-down approach
- bottom-up approach
The difference between these two approaches is quality, speed, and cost.
Top-Down Approach: In a top-down approach, heavy material is broken down into nano-sized particles. Techniques like precision engineering and lithography are used in this process.
Bottom-Up Approach: The bottom-up approach involves the development of nanostructures by physical and chemical methods at the nanoscale in the range of one to 100 nanometers.
If these two approaches are understood in simple words, then in the top-down, large size material is manufactured by bringing it to nano size.
Whereas in the bottom-up approach, the construction is done at the atomic or atomic level. Due to the bottom-up process, less waste is generated in it, various types of nano products are manufactured from these approaches.
Application of nanotechnology
The applications of nanotechnology are found in every field of electronics, agriculture, health, and energy. Talking about the application of nanotechnology in agriculture, nano fertilizers, quantum dot,s, and nano pesticides, etc. are prominent. The NUE ie nutrient efficiency utilization of nano fertilizers is higher than that of conventional fertilizers. They release the nutrients slowly in the crop, this also reduces the leaching of fertilizers in the groundwater.
- Plant physiological information is obtained through quantum dots.
- Nanomagnets are used to identify the pollutants in the soil.
- Reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits has made it possible to manufacture smaller electronics products.
- Due to better display in electronic devices, the energy consumption from the screen has decreased in its weight and thickness.
- The product of nanotechnology has proved to be very important in the field of CNT i.e. Carbon Nano Tubes.
- CNTs are one of the hardest materials known to humans, their structural and electrical properties make them useful for many applications.
They are in the shape of cylinders which are made of a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms. They can be made from curved seats of graphene. Single-world carbon nanotubes made by rolling a single seat and multi-world carbon nanotubes when made by rolling more than one seat are called. New research is being done continuously regarding CNT. Based on the scientists’ discovery, carbon nanotubes can be used as drug delivery carriers, biochemicals sensors.
Research by scientists has shown that CNT is biodegradable. Apart from this, quantum dots, nanowires and nanodots are also used in the field of electronics.
In 2005, the Japanese company Toshiba used nanoparticles in a chargeable lithium-ion battery. N RAM i.e. Nano RAM is also one of the major applications of nanotechnology to store high memory.
This memory is a piece of storage The technique is that carbon nanotubes have been used with conventional semiconductors. In the field of energy, solar energy is considered to be the most useful in the future compared to other conventional energy sources.
The biggest limitation of solar energy is that the cost of manufacturing noise cells is high, its solution has been found in the form of solar cells with the nanostructure. Their size is a few hundred meters so that solar energy can be absorbed accurately without any unpleasantness. Similar nanogenerators are also proving useful in the energy sector with the advantages of low cost, high output, and simple production.
Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to the field of health. Talk about applications of nanotechnology in the field of health The biggest challenge for doctors in cardiovascular disease is to detect them.
This has been solved through nanotechnology by developing hard attack detectors and nanosensors that detect increased myoglobin in blood plasma. In addition, nanocarriers have made great strides in drug delivery systems. The collider drugs carrier system uses particles smaller than 500 nanometers in size.
Bio nanochip is also used as a biomarker while titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used as antimicrobial.
Nanotechnology in India
India has published more than 23 thousand papers in Nano Science. In 2013, India ranked third after China and the USA in terms of publishing papers in nanoscience.
India also has some challenges that can be solved through nanotechnology, more than 60 percent of India’s population works in the agriculture sector. In this sense, the contribution of this sector to GDP is comparatively less. With the help of nanotechnology, farmers can be provided with easy-to-use devices such as the Soil Health Monitoring System at a low cost. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture will not only increase the productivity of the area but also increase the income of the farmers.
The second challenge for India is in the health sector.
According to a 2012 report released by the Innovation Council on Nano Electronics, 22 million people in India go below the poverty line annually due to health-related expenses. Along with this, India is battling diseases like TV, Malaria, and AIDS. These challenges can be met by providing facilities like diagnostic technology, medical equipment at affordable costs.
Nanotechnology can prove to be helpful in
Apart from this, due to the dividend of the population in India, there is also a large number of people in the workforce, which can prove to be helpful in the development of nanotechnology. In view of this, in the year 2001, the Ministry of Science and Technology launched the Nano Science and Technology Initiative, which was meant to focus on issues related to infrastructure development, basic research, and application-based program in nanomaterials.
In the year 2007, the Government of India launched the Mission on Nano Science and Technology. Its phase two was approved during the 12th five-year plan. The Department of Science and Technology was made the nodal agency to implement this nano mission. Its main objective was to promote basic research, infrastructure development for research, development of nanotechnology and its applications, development of human resources, focus on international collaboration, etc.
The Nano Electronics Innovation Council was formed by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology to promote innovation in this field.
In order to promote manufacturing in this technology, a Nanotechnology Manufacturing Center has been established at the Central Manufacturing Technology Institute, Bangalore.
India’s efforts in nanotechnology are boosting programs like Make in India along with providing economic strength. Challenges like Kovid-19 are demanding innovation in the field of health before the world today. In such a situation, nanotechnology can emerge as an alternative, but with the benefits of every technology, there are also some limitations.
challenges related to nanotechnology
- India still spends less than countries like Japan, USA Price, and China.
- less investment by the private sector
- Employment generation is also low due to less investment and funding in the sector
- Nanopollution is the waste material that is produced during the manufacture of nanodevices or materials.
For example, chlorine is used for industrial lubricants and sports equipment
- lines reach landfills as waste, which pollutes them by reaching the air, soil, and water.
- Apart from this, experts believe that people in urban areas are affected by car smoke and manganese oxide coming out of construction sites.
- Nanoparticles are so small in size that they easily enter the living cells, which is capable of harming human health.
- At the national level, there should be a regulatory framework that deals with the safety aspects related to nanotechnology and related issues. risks can be dealt with.
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We can say that the new development of nanotechnology in India has been laid on the premise that it can help in fighting the social and economic challenges of India. India has also made many important efforts in this direction through schemes.
To meet the challenges arising out of nanotechnology around the world, countries have prepared frameworks and regulations.
India also needs to bring a strategic framework to protect its people and the environment, only by investing in research in this area, India will be able to take advantage of this unlimited potential technology.